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base rate fallacy example mcat

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Two cab companies, the Green and the Blue, operate in the city. Base Rate Fallacy Background. An example of the base rate fallacy is the false positive paradox. With strong ties to the concept of base rate fallacy, overreaction to a market event is one such example. In classical conditioning, the process of taking advantage of reflexive responses to turn a neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus. theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. In perception, a decrease in stimulus perception after a long duration of exposure, the extent to which a trait benefits a species by influencing the evolutionary fitness of the species, an impression management strategy in which one makes questionable behavior acceptable thru excuses, an impression management strategy in which one imposes an identity onto another person, a state of normlessness; anomic conditions erode social solidarity by means of excessive individualism, social inequality, and isolation, a similar theory to the basic model, accepting that there are biologically predetermined expressions once an emotion is experienced; accepts that there is a cognitive antecedent to emotional expression. Appendix A reproduces a base-rate fal- lacy example in diagram form. This is a passive and spontaneous process and relies on the random movement of molecules and Brownian motion. The base rate fallacy can lead us to make inaccurate probability judgments in many different aspects of our lives. is the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it. Eg: the cross symbolizes Christianity, thumbs up symbolizes approval. An altered state of consciousness in which a person appears to be awake but is, in fact, in a highly suggestible state in which another person or event may trigger action by the person, The rhythm, cadence, and inflection of speech, deviance can be learned through interactions with others, -play by themselves but observe another child playing and adjust their behavior in response, Assumption of the functionalist theory of social stratification, -Social stratification is necessary and results from people with special knowledge and skills to have the most important professions and occupations, assert that aspects of culture are necessary and need-based, -bias and inequality are underlying aspects of education, Symbolic Interactionism Theory of Education. WikiPremed is a trademark of Wisebridge Learning Systems LLC. The base rate fallacy, better known as an imbalanced target variable in Supervised Machine Learning, is common in analytics and especially fraud analytics. The representativeness heuristic, choice (B) , involves categorization and classification based on how well an individual example … Empirical research on base rate usage has been domi­ nated by the perspective that people ignore base rates and that it is an errorto do so. In Freudian psychoanalysis, the result of overindulgence or frustration during a psychosexual stage causing a neurotic pattern of personality based on that stage. incest), -established standards of behavior that are written down and have very clear consequences, -compares individuals with a disease to individuals without a disease, pressured to give socially acceptable response, -participants take the same exam over and over again, which affects responses, -participants drop out of a study over time, which affects the results, -individuals are related by choice, such as through marriage, -infants preferred spending time clinging to the cloth mother, -society feeling fragmented and lacking cohesiveness, -negative aspects of a situation are focused upon, not the good aspects, -people make judgments overly based on information that is immediately available to them, person interprets things in a way to bolster self-esteem, including how they carry out attribution, the degree to which causal conclusions can be drawn from a study, which can include accounting for potential confounding variables, -degree to which the findings of a study are generalizable to the population as a whole, -the extent to which a study appears to assess what it is intended to assess--the degree to which it 'seems right' to participants and researchers, -whether a study comprehensively accounts for all the relevant facets of the phenomenon it is intended to investigate`, a center for reward sensitivity that is often implicated in addiction research, like traditional X-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body, individuals make different interpretations about stimuli, such as interpreting stigma negatively or non-negatively, -Darwin studied the evolution of emotion, examining emotion from the perspective of its value in successful reproduction, an animal behaving in ways that it ensures the propagation of its genes, -basic conflict that emerges when an individual reaches maturity (at 65 and older) and is reflecting on his or her life, -basic conflict that occurs during middle adulthood (ages 40-65), when individuals are trying to balance employment and being parents, occurs during young adulthood (19-40), when individuals need to form intimate relationships with other people, -occurs during adolescence (12 to 18 years), when teens are trying to develop social relationships with others and find a sense of self or personal identity, -Kubler-Ross model of stages when a person is facing the end of their life, the aging of biological factors and the physical body, -aging that relates to behavioral factors like diet and exercise, advantages of within-subject studies over between-subject studies. Normally involved in motivation and emotional response, and its activation accounts for positive reinforcement of substance abuse. Taxonomy: Logical Fallacy > Formal Fallacy > Probabilistic Fallacy > The Base Rate Fallacy Alias: Neglecting Base Rates 1 Thought Experiment: Suppose that the rate of disease D is three times higher among homosexuals than among heterosexuals, that is, the percentage of homosexuals … -Predicts verbal abilities and reading comprehension even though the subject is solving a math problem. Evidence shows that the mind tends to ignore base rates in the presence of subsequent information that is seemingly … The base rate fallacy is also known as base rate neglect or base rate bias. Symbols can vary between cultures. Base Rate Fallacy If presented with related base rate information (generic, general information) and specific information (information only pertaining to a certain case) the mind tends to ignore the former and focus on the latter. This article explains its statistical basis and looks at real-life examples. MCAT Physical Help » Biochemistry, Organic Chemistry, and Other Concepts » Physical Chemistry » Reaction Kinetics » Reaction Rate and Rate Laws Example Question #1 : Reaction Rate And Rate Laws If the reactants and/or products in a chemical reaction are gases, the reaction rate can be determined by measuring … When evaluating the probability of an event―for instance, diagnosing a disease, there are two types of information that may be available. It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping. Rainbow et al. During this stage they learn object permanence, the concept that even if you hide a ball under the rug, the ball continues to exist. The failure to incorporate the true prevalence of a disease into diagnostic reasoning. Pathway includes: the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the connection between them is called the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Base rate neglect. explains the mental processes which influence the stressors, after a prior gain, people become more open to assuming risk since the new money is not treated as one's own, -mistaken belief that, if something happens more frequently than normal during some period, it will happen less frequently in the future, or vice versa. All 1000 students are tested by the system. Ignoring base rates • People were told that they would be reading descriptions of a group that had 30 engineers and 70 lawyers. Base rate neglect. The base rate fallacy is committed when a person focuses on specific information and ignores generic information relating to the overall likelihood of a given event. deals with the differences in neuronal activity of the brainstem during waking and REM sleep, and the hypothesis proposes that dreams result from brain activation during REM sleep. 2 In turn, this can lead us to develop … • People had to judge whether each description was of an engineer or a lawyer. Addiction pathway is activated by all substances. social structure can pressure people to commit crime, difficulty connecting meaning to language, exerts control by appealing to others' desire to belong to a group, motivate thru using knowledge of subject matter, exert power thru the legitimacy of their role, currently existing long-term memories can interfere with the process of forming new long-term memories, making up memories to fill in gaps and then believing that those memories are true (symptom of Korsakoff's syndrome), the cognitive dissonance with behaving in a counter-attitudinal way, when a person is persuaded by others to behave in a way that is contrary to their attitudes, state of cognitive dissonance that emerges when a person makes an effort to achieve a modest goal, free choice reduction of conflict happens when a person has a binary choice which may conflict with their current views or beliefs. This paradox describes situations where there are more false positive test results than true positives. Loss of muscle control with intrusion of REM sleep during waking hours, usually caused by an emotional trigger, A sleep disorder characterized by abnormal movements or behaviors during sleep, Hallucinations that occur when going to sleep; seen in narcolepsy, Occur when awakening from sleep; seen in narcolepsy, A condition resulting from chronic thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, which is common in alcoholics; characterized by severe memory impairment with changes in mental status and loss of coordination, A drug family consisting of naturally occurring, highly addictive, pain-reducing drugs used in both medical and recreational settings. For example, we often overestimate the pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism, working it up in essentially no risk patients, skewing our Bayesian reasoning and resulting in increased costs, false positives, … In probability and statistics, base rate generally refers to the (base) class probabilities unconditioned on featural evidence, frequently also known as prior probabilities.In plainer words, if it were the case that 1% of the public were "medical professionals", and 99% of the public were not "medical professionals", then the base rate … The generic information would relate to the prevalence of the … The classic scientific demonstration of the base rate fallacy comes from an experiment, performed by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, in which participants received a description of 5 individuals apparently selected at random from a pool of descriptions that contained 70 … Deductive reasoning, choice (A) , refers to drawing conclusions by integrating different pieces of evidence. • They should have factored in the base rate: once they make a decision, their attitudes can change to be more congruent with their decision, an influence to accept information from others as evidence about reality, and comes into play when we are uncertain about info or what might be correct, influence to conform with the expectations of others to gain social approval, superficial, public change in behavior in response to group pressure, an attempt to get someone to like you in order to get them to comply with your requests, describes the generalizability of the study, or the extent to which results can be applied to a wider population, how well the items of a test assess the construct of interest, changes in attitudes among people in groups--tendency to go to the extreme, describes a person who is in the midst of an identity crisis, tendency to avoid situations or actions that may produce change, instead preferring to choose action that will keep normalcy, or the status quo, tendency to agree with people who agree with us, or to seek out sources that confirm our thinking rather than challenge it, 3 core principles to communication: meaning, language, and thought, examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world, patterns of behavior in societies reflect the choices made by individuals as they try to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs. A phenomenon observed when individuals must make judgments that are complex but instead substitute a simpler solution or perception, poverty wherein people do not have enough resources to acquire basic life necessities such as shelter, food, clothing, and water, the minimum of stimulus energy needed to activate a sensory system, in classical conditioning, the process of taking advantage of reflexive responses to turn a neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus, -in perception, a decrease in stimulus perception after a long duration of exposure, process by which existing schemata are modified to encompass new information, occurs when a person misjudges the likelihood of an event because he or she doesn't take into account other relevant base rate information. A shortcut in decision-making that relies on the information that is most readily available, rather than the total body of information on a subject. Thus, this experience changes his perception and results in base rate fallacy. [6] Conjunction fallacy – the assumption that an outcome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying a single one of them. -qualitative differences b/n the way that children and adults think, thus divide the lifespan into four stages of cognitive development: process of classifying new info into existing schemata, process by which existing schemata are modified to encompass this new information, repetition of a body movement that originally occurred by chance, manipulation is focused on something outside the body, aka...cognitive arousal theory or two-factor theory, stimulus....first response= nervous system arousal...second response= conscious emotion, stimulus...first response= nervous system arousal and conscious emotion...second response= action, stimulus...first response= nervous system arousal and cognitive appraisal of environment...second response= conscious emotion, -human psychology and human sexuality are linked, -stages of personality development are based on a series of crises that derive from conflicts b/n needs and social demands, Vygotsky: Cultural and Biosocial Development, -engine driving cognitive development was the child's internalization of various aspects of the culture, basic inborn urges to survive and reproduce, language learning technique in which subjects repeat speech immediately after hearing it, brain areas that process linguistic information (both produciton and comprehension), verbal inputs to left ear, first go to auditory cortex in right hemisphere, then, must be processed by the language areas of the left hemisphere, our ability to focus on something that is going on while other, non-related things are going on around us. The student falls to the base rate fallacy, where it is likely that previous knowledge about the prevalence of stroke victims is confounded by subsequent info about the high prevalence of strokes at the stroke centre. For manyyears, the so-called base rate fallacy, with its distinctive name and arsenal … term created by Hans Selye to describe the body's short-term and long-term reactions to stress. Assume we present you with the following description of a person named Linda: Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. popular culture, schools, family, and religion, material culture (technology) changes faster than symbolic (beliefs, values), stimulation that actually occurs when your sensory receptors are activated... the neural activity. Base rate fallacy – making a probability judgment based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities. Similar to heuristics, biases are other shortcuts that can lead us to incorrect answers during problem solving. the actual stimulus or object in the real world that you end up sensing and then perceiving, which results in the proximal stimulus. The base rate fallacy is a tendency to focus on specific information over general probabilities. In psychology, the process by which new information is interpreted in terms of existing schemata. Gambling and falling in love. Imagine that I show you a bag of 250 M&Ms with equal numbers of 5 different colors. the type of attention we need to use when we are forced to do more than one task at a time. In this lesson, you will find out how this and other examples of base rate fallacy occur. Example Question #21 : Mcat Physical Sciences Diffusion can be defined as the net transfer of molecules down a gradient of differing concentrations. Modeling Base Rate Fallacy What is the Base Rate Fallacy? The work of WikiPremed is published under a. Backfire Effect, Base Rate Fallacy, Clustering Illusion, Conjunction Fallacy & False Dilemma. Representative heuristic vs base rate fallacy; supper confused. A failure to take account of the base rate or prior probability (1) of an event when subjectively judging its conditional probability. For example, the base rate of suicide in the general population is less than 1%, whereas the base rate of suicide for a more restricted population, for example, among patients with borderline personality disorder, may be as high as 10%. 3 The Base-Rate Fallacy The base-rate fallacy 1 is one of the cornerstones of Bayesian statistics, stemming as it does directly from Bayes' famous 1The idea behind this approach stems from [13,14]. How much our attention is divided depends on the difficulty of the tasks. Base Rate Fallacy Defined. /r/MCAT is a place for MCAT practice, questions, discussion, advice, social networking, news, study tips … In the fourth article of the Cognitive Biases and Fallacies, How Are They Exploited series, you will learn about examples of cognitive biases and fallacies, and how they are used against you by the media, politicians, social … behavior characterized by showing virtually no signs of emotion or affective expression, ability to quickly identify relationships and connections, and then use those relationships and connections to make correct deductions, a long projection from the hippocampus that connects to other nuclei in the limbic system, a portion of the cerebral cortex that controls motor processing, executive function, and the integration of cognitive and behavioral processes, the inability to identify uses for an object beyond its usual purpose, a theoretical framework that explains how parts of society fit together to create a cohesive whole, a model that explains social interaction and decision-making as a game, including strategies, incentives, and punishments, collections of neuron cell bodies found outside the central nervous system, theory that distinguishes between two major types of groups: communities, which share beliefs, ancestry, or geography; and societies, which work together toward a common goal, ways for the brain to infer missing parts of a picture when a picture is incomplete, the tendency toward decisions that are more extreme than the individual inclinations of the group members, the tendency for groups to make decisions based on ideas and solutions that arise within the group without considering outside ideas and ethics; based on pressure to conform and remain loyal to the group, a sudden increase in response to a stimulus, usually due to a change in the stimulus or addition of another stimulus; sometimes called resensitization, a decrease in response caused by repeated exposure to a stimulus, a cognitive bias in which judgments of an individual's character can be affected by the overall impression of the individual, a rule of thumb or short-cut that is used to make decisions, occur when going to sleep; seen in narcolepsy, occur when awakening from sleep; seen in narcolepsy, In Freudian psychoanalysis, the part of the unconscious resulting from basic, instinctual urges for sexuality and survival; operates under the pleasure principle and seeks instant gratification, memory that does not require conscious recall; consists of skills and conditioned behaviors, a theory that states that people tend to associate traits and behavior in others, and that people have the tendency to attribute their own beliefs, opinions, and ideas onto others, the number of new cases of a disease per population at risk in a given period of time; usually, new cases per 1000 at-risk people per year, a measure of reproductive success; depends on the number of offspring an individual has, how well they support their offspring, and how well their offspring can support others, one person discriminating against a particular person or group, a form of cognition that utilizes generalizations to develop a theory, an impression management strategy that uses flattery to increase social acceptance, behavior that is genetically programmed or instinctive, the tendency of animals to resist learning when a conditioned behavior conflicts with the animal's instinctive behaviors, discrimination against a particular person or group by an entire institution, numerical measurement of intelligence, usually accomplished by some form of standardized testing, a technique of observing and immediately classifying the activities of small groups, old information causes difficulty learning new information, new information interferes with older learning, a theory of emotion that states that a stimulus results in physiological arousal, which then leads to a secondary response in which emotion is consciously experienced, the cognitive bias that good things happen to good people, and bad things happen to bad people. A short-cut in decision-making that relies on categorizing items on the basis of whether they fit the prototypical, stereotypical, or representative image of the category, the tendency for people to hold their beliefs as true, even when there is ample evidence to discredit the belief. Easy Definition of Base Rate Fallacy: Don't think "99% accurate" means a 1% failure rate.There's far more to think about before you can work out the failure rate. The problem should have been solved as follows: - There is a 12% chance (15% x 80%) the witness correctly identified a blue car. -cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors, -the tendency to over stress changes between the past and present in order to make oneself appear more worthy or competent than one actually is, -Set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups and societies organize, perceive, and communicate about reality -social contraction of a social experiment, tendency to excessively depend on automated systems, which can lead to erroneous automated information overriding correct decisions, -poverty tends to beget poverty, and wealth tends to beget wealth across generations, -tendency to attribute good outcomes with internal factors and ascribe bad outcomes to external factors, tendency for individuals to overemphasize internal characteristics, such as personality, in attempting to explain someone's behavior at the expense of situational factors, attitudes towards particular groups that do not have a basis in reality, increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, bronchodilation, strength of an electrochemical signal is always, -selectively finding evidence to support views, expectations influence attitudes or behavior, -recalling information that is most readily available, refers to ways that the experiment applies to the environment, -refers to the way the measures are constructed, likelihood that results could be replicated, -patients project their own subjective feelings, perceptions, and thoughts..yielding results that are open for inaccuracy, require the participant to respond, and then their response is assessed for meaning, measures specific personality characteristics based on a set of discrete options, such as in the Meyers-Briggs personality assessment, -individuals engage in criminal choices because they are exposed to it, while individuals who don't commit crimes have not been exposed to this type of behavior. A classic demonstration of the problems that can occur through neglect of relevant base rates is the taxi-cab problem. A simple example of this would involve the diagnosis of a condition in a patient. As demonstrated by Kahneman and Tversky in the aforementioned example, it can cause us to jump to conclusions about people based on our initial impressions of them. Thus, this experience changes his perception and results in base rate fallacy. -one of the several information processing occurrences in the nervous system, stimulant....would have a physiological effect similar to stress and hence glucose metabolism is expected to increase, bind to a receptor ON POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE within the CNS, Test to see the general capacity of working memory tasks, patients are asked to read and verify a simple math problem (is 4/2 -1 = 1?) In medical ethics, the tenet that the physician has a responsibility to treat similar patients with similar care, and to distribute healthcare resources fairly. The MCAT (Medical College Admission Test) is offered by the AAMC and is a required exam for admission to medical schools in the USA and Canada. The best way to explain base rate neglect, is to start off with a (classical) example. A classic demonstration of the problems that can occur through neglect of relevant base rates is the taxi-cab problem. (2011) provide an excellent example of how investigators and profilers may become distracted from the usual crime scene investigative methods because they ignore or are unaware of the base rate. They gave a number that reflected their confidence in their judgement. Verbal inputs to the left ear, which first go to the, auditory cortex in the right hemisphere, must be processed by the language areas of the left hemisphere. Base Rate Fallacy occurs when a person misjudges the likelihood of an event because he or she doesn't take into account other relevant base rate information -base rate= likelihood of an event occurring out there in the world regardless of what the conditions of a particular situation may be Thus, the answer is 9 kg. The court tested the reliability of the witness under the same circumstances that existed on the night of the accident and concluded that the witness correctly identified each one of the two colors 80% of the time and failed 20% of the time.What is the probability that the cab involved in the accident was Blue rather than Green knowing that this witness identified it as Blue? a theory in which attitudes are formed and changed thru different routes of information processing based on the degree of deep thought given to persuasive information, the association of information in short-term memory to information already stored in long-term memory; aids in long-term storage, the process of receiving information and preparing it for storage; can be automatic or effortful, natural painkillers produced by the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with the fight-or-flight response, misuse of grammar characterized by universal application of a rule, regardless of exceptions; seen in children during language development, a form of negative reinforcement in which one reduces the unpleasantness of something that already exists, memory that requires conscious recall, divided into facts (semantic memory) and experiences (episodic memory); also known as declarative memory, average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime in a population. A sleep disorder in which one has difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or avoiding sleep. Failing to consider the base rate leads to wrong conclusions, known as the base-rate fallacy. A cheating detection system catches cheaters with a 5% false positive rate. A cab was involved in a hit and run accident at night. The conclusion the profiler neglect or underweight the base-rate information, that is, s/he commit the base-rate fallacy. cluding the paper. interacting via symbols. Deductive reasoning, choice (A), refers to drawing conclusions by integrating different pieces of evidence. This idea is linked to the Base Rate Fallacy. The representativeness heuristic, choice (B), involves categorization and classification based on how well an individual example fits its … When faced with evidence that contradicts their beliefs, people may choose to discredit, dismiss, misinterpret, or place little significance on the contradictory information, A decision-making model in which experience and recognition of similar situations one has already experienced play a large role in decision-making and actions; also one of the explanations for the experience of intuition, dreams are a meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which shape what we dream about. a phenomenon observed when individuals must make judgments that are complex but instead substitute a simpler solution or perception, involuntary branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary functions such as heart rate, bronchial dilation, temperature, and digestion, the ethical tenet that the physician has the responsibility to respect patients' choices about their own healthcare, a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant; often used for anxiety, insomnia, and as an antiseizure medication, a portion of the forebrain that coordinates muscle movement and routes information from the cortex to the brain and spinal cord, first established by Charles Darwin, a theory that states that emotional expression involves a number of systems: facial expression as well as behavioral and physical responses; claims that emotions are universal and should be similar across cultures, the ethical tenet that the physician has a responsibility to act in the patient's best interest, a CNS depressant that is often used to reduce anxiety or promote sleep, a brain region located at the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe (usually in the left hemisphere); largely responsible for the motor function of speech, a formal organization with the goal of performing complex tasks as efficiently as possible by dividing work among a number of bureaus, a theory of emotion that states that a stimulus is first received and is then simultaneously processed physiologically and cognitively, allowing for the conscious emotion to be experienced, disorganized motor behavior characterized by various unusual physical movements or stillness, a portion of the hindbrain that maintains posture and balance and coordinates body movements, the outermost layer of the cerebrum, responsible for complex perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive processes, the social structure or institution about which societies are organized, a repetitive action that achieves a desired response; seen during Piaget's sensorimotor stage, In Jungian psychoanalysis, the part of the unconscious mind that is shared among all humans and is a result of our common ancestry, a speech disorder characterized by the inability to repeat words with intact spontaneous speech production and comprehension; usually due to injury to the arcuate fasciculus, two structures in the midbrain involved in sensorimotor reflexes; the superior colliculus receives visual sensory input, and the inferior colliculus receives auditory sensory input, a cognitive bias in which one focuses on information that supports a given solution, belief, or hypothesis, and ignores evidence against it, a theoretical framework that emphasizes the role of power differentials in producing social order, concept seen in quantitative analysis performed by a child; develops when a child is able to identify the difference b/n quantity by number and actual amount, especially when faced with identical quantities separated into varying pieces, a theory that states that people pay closer attention to intentional behavior than accidental behavior when making attributions, especially if the behavior is unexpected, cognitive capacity to understand relationships or solve problems using information acquired during schooling and other experiences, a shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values, and behaviors organized around a central theme and found among people who speak the same language and share a geographic region, a form of cognition that starts with general information and narrows down that information to create a conclusion, the statistical arm of sociology, which attempts to characterize and explain populations by quantitative analysis, a portion of the prosencephalon that becomes the thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland, and pineal gland, the idea that states that if evidence obtained during testing does not confirm a hypothesis, then the hypothesis is discarded or revised, In classical conditioning, the process by which two similar but distinct conditioned stimuli produce different responses, cultural expectations of how emotions can be expressed, the side of brain that provides analytic, language, logic, and math skills; in most individuals, the left hemisphere, a neurotransmitter associated with smooth movements, steady posture, the reward pathway, and psychosis, an impression management theory that represents the world as a stage and individuals as actors performing to an audience, a theory that explains motivation as being based on the goal of eliminating uncomfortable internal states, deficiencies that activate particular behaviors focused on a goal, a sleep disorder in which one has difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or avoiding sleep, In Freudian psychoanalysis, the part of the unconscious mind that mediates the urges of the id and superego; operates under the reality principle.

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