Personality refers to the long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways. Many personality types trust the status quo, relying on conventional wisdom and other people’s expertise as they go about their lives. The role of personality becomes clear in a particular situation. He developed a list of traits that could be used to describe the personality of a person from each of the four temperaments. https://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Introduction_to_personality_psychology Considering cultural influences on personality is important because Western ideas and theories are not necessarily applicable to other cultures (Benet-Martinez & Oishi, 2008). What characteristics describe your personality? Genetics: The expression of inherited genes plays a role in determining personality. I bought this book for a personality class in college. Related to this, evolutionary theories explore how variation in individual personalities variance may be rooted in natural selection. Figure 2. The biological perspective on personality emphasizes the influence of the brain and genetic factors on personality. The perspective of personality proposed by Freud and his followers was the dominant theory of personality for the first half of the 20th century. First, personality is best understood as a constellation of interacting characteristics; it is necessary to look at the whole person when attempting to understand the phenomenon and its effects on subsequent behavior. Trait theorists believe personality can be conceptualized as a set of common traits, or characteristic ways of behaving, that every individual exhibits to some degree. Even after so many years of research and studies, no one definition has been agreed by all theorists. Sigmund Freud: Sigmund Freud advanced a psychodynamic view of human personality that implicated the id, ego, and superego as the main determinants of individual differences in personality. There are three approaches that can be used to study personality in a cultural context: the cultural-comparative approach, the indigenous approach, and the combined approach, which incorporates elements of the first two approaches. Humanistic theory argues that an individual’s subjective free will is the most important determinant of behavior. Personality psychology attempts to study similarities and differences in these patterns among different people and groups. Figure 1. A great deal of modern personality psychology is influenced by, and attempts to answer, the following five philosophical questions about what really determines personality: Research into these five philosophical questions has branched into several different approaches to studying personality. Meanwhile, submissiveness and caretaking have historically been held as ideal feminine traits. The field of behavioral genetics focuses on the relationship between genes and behavior and has given psychologists a glimpse of the link between genetics and personality. 301 certified writers online. Mark Pettinelli, Emotional, Social and Personality Development. The term culture refers to all of the beliefs, customs, ideas, behaviors, and traditions of a particular society that are passed through generations. John Wiley & Sons; 7th edition 10 Jul 2003. It is not the best psych textbook that I have ever read, as it is kind of dry and some of the explanations are repetitive and a bit too simplistic, but it is overall a decent introduction to the theories and research behind personality psychology. The word “personality” originates from the Latin word persona, which means “mask.” Personality as a field of study began with Hippocrates, a physician in ancient Greece, who theorized that personality traits and human behaviors are based on four separate temperaments associated with four fluids of the body known as “humors”. In the U.S., aggression and assertiveness are emphasized as positive traits for males, while submissiveness and caretaking are emphasized for females. INTRODUCTION OF PERSONALITY TEST Your identity and conduct style are estimated through what is known as a self-report identity survey. However, Wundt suggested that a better description of personality could be achieved using two major axes: emotional/nonemotional and changeable/unchangeable. Personality – Introduction In modern organisations, personality attributes of a manager are considered important, since they affect the entire behavioural pattern of the person. Drawing on cutting-edge scientific research, classic personality theories, and stirring examples from biography and literature, The Person presents a lively and integrative introduction to the science of personality psychology. Personality development is defined as a process of developing and enhancing one’s personality. A limitation of this perspective is that it focuses almost exclusively on the nature side of the nature vs. nurture debate (the debate about whether genetics or environment are more influential in human development). In 1858, Gage was working as a blasting foreman for a railroad company. Discuss the impact of culture and gender on personality development. The first axis separated strong from weak emotions (the melancholic and choleric temperaments from the phlegmatic and sanguine). Personality is the combination of behavior, emotion, motivation, and thought patterns that define an individual. (a) Gall developed a chart that depicted which areas of the skull corresponded to particular personality traits or characteristics (Hothersall, 1995). We will write a custom Essay on Introduction to Personality Paper specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. We all like to think that the new ideas we come up with are truly new. Personality is influenced by both biological and environmental factors; culture is one of the most important environmental factors that shapes personality. . The third approach to cross-cultural studies of personality is the. How would you describe your own personality? For our purposes, we will examine the term from a psychological standpoint as it relates to behavior and performance in the workplace. For example, one person may immediately respond to a new stimulus with a high level of anxiety while another barely notices it. (credit b: modification of work by Wellcome Library, London). This theory, known as humorism, proposed that an individual’s personality was the result of the balance of these humors (yellow bile, black bile, phlegm, and blood), which corresponded to four dispositions (grumpy, melancholy, calm, and cheer, respectively). These theorists, referred to as neo-Freudians, generally agreed with Freud that childhood experiences matter, but they reduced the emphasis on sex and focused more on the social environment and effects of culture on personality. Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic perspective of personality was the first comprehensive theory of personality, explaining a wide variety of both normal and abnormal behaviors. Hormones, neurotransmitters, and genetics are the key factors in this focus; the effects of environmental and social factors, however, are often overlooked. Culture is transmitted to people through language as well as through the modeling of behavior, and it defines which traits and behaviors are considered important, desirable, or undesirable. The biological approach to personality has also identified areas and pathways within the brain that are associated with the development of personality. We often hear people use and misuse the term personality. We’d love your input. Positive and negative traits can be determined by cultural expectations: what is considered a positive trait in one culture may be considered negative in another, thus resulting in different expressions of personality across cultures. The field of behavioral genetics focuses on the relationship between genes and behavior. Over time, these patterns strongly influence personal expectations, perceptions, values, and attitudes. Phineas Gage’s skull: The case of Phineas Gage was one of the first indicators of a biological basis for personality. There is a great deal of evidence that the strength of personality traits varies across cultures, and this is especially true when comparing individualist cultures (such as European, North American, and Australian cultures) and collectivist cultures (such as Asian, African, and South American cultures). It is the results of personal quality interaction in a particular condition. Personality is the combination of behavior, emotion, motivation, and thought patterns that define an individual. In common parlance, personality refers to the impression, which an individual forms on others through his personal attributes making attractive or unattractive view. One of the first documented cases that demonstrated the link between personality and the brain was that of Phineas Gage, who underwent a drastic personality change after a brain injury. Psychodynamic theory, originating with Sigmund Freud, posits that human behavior is the result of the interaction among various components of the mind (the id, ego, and superego) and that personality develops according to a series of psychosexual developmental stages. Within a culture there are norms and behavioral expectations. A large part of the evidence collected linking genetics and the environment to personality comes from twin studies, which compare levels of similarity in personality between genetically identical twins. View this video for a brief overview of some of the psychological perspectives on personality. These values influence personality in different but substantial ways; for example, Yang (2006) found that people in individualist cultures displayed more personally-oriented personality traits, whereas people in collectivist cultures displayed more socially-oriented personality traits. Hippocrates theorized that personality traits and human behaviors are based on four separate temperaments associated with four fluids (“humors”) of the body: choleric temperament (yellow bile from the liver), melancholic temperament (black bile from the kidneys), sanguine temperament (red blood from the heart), and phlegmatic temperament (white phlegm from the lungs) (Clark & Watson, 2008; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985; Lecci & Magnavita, 2013; Noga, 2007). While identical twins may have some similar personality traits, however, they still have distinct personalities, suggesting that genetics are not the only factor in determining personality. We combine state-of-the-art technology, artificial intelligence, data analytics and the human touch. There are many approaches to the modern psychological study of personality, including the psychodynamic, neo-Freudian, learning, humanistic, biological, trait, and cultural perspectives. Figure 3. For example, Thomas and Chess (1977) found that babies could be categorized into one of three temperaments: easy, difficult, or slow to warm up. Galen’s theory was prevalent for over 1,000 years and continued to be popular through the Middle Ages. These traits vary from culture to culture. In studying 350 pairs of twins, including pairs of identical and fraternal twins reared together and apart, researchers found that identical twins, whether raised together or apart, have very similar personalities (Bouchard, 1994; Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal, & Tellegen, 1990; Segal, 2012). This aspect of personality is called individual differences. Influence of gender roles on personality expression: Gender roles can determine which traits are considered positive or desirable. Many theories have been developed about what human personality is and how it develops. People who live in individualist cultures tend to value independence, competition, and personal achievement, while people from collectivist cultures tend to value social harmony, respectfulness, and group needs. The biological perspective on personality emphasizes the internal physiological and genetic factors that influence personality. Why or why not? Cite this essay. For example, we hear that someone has a “nice” personality. Because of this, the biological perspective can be useful in identifying causes of and effective treatments for personality and mood disorders. Therefore, the cause of the increases in both ice cream sales and drowning deaths is most likely the hot summer weather. In much the same manner that cultural norms can influence personality and behavior, gender norms (the behaviors that males and females are expected to conform to in a given society) can also influence personality by emphasizing different traits between different genders. Trace the history of the field of personality psychology. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. A person’s culture is one of the most important environmental factors shaping their personality (Triandis & Suh, 2002). Personality is likely made up of biological, behavioral, and cognitive aspects. APA MLA Harvard Chicago ASA IEEE AMA. Second, various dimensions of personality are relatively stable across time. Personality development helps an individual to gain confidence and high self esteem. These findings suggest the heritability of some personality traits, implying that some aspects of our personalities are largely controlled by genetics. No previous psychology knowledge or training is required. The researcher Gordon Allport considered culture to be an important influence on traits and defined common traits as those that are recognized within a culture. Personality theories are attempts at understanding both the characteristics of our personality characteristics and the way these characteristics develop and impact our life. This personality is also unique in every person, and is influenced by such things as the environment and his or her genetics. In addition, the correlational studies used for measuring normal personality traits are subjected to the same rules as normal correlational research: they cannot be used alone to establish causation. Usually when we talk about someone's personality, we are talking about what makes that person different from other people, perhaps even unique. Personality psychologists are interested in understanding the role that culture plays in the development of personality. Introduction to Sociology/Social psychology. Many personality studies today investigate the activation and expression of genes and how they relate to personality. (2017, Mar 28). All factors are reduced to quantifiable variables that can be reliably measured by personality trait models and questionnaires. Some people seem to worry a lot while others never seem to get anxious. In the ancient world, a persona was a mask worn by an actor. Personality psychology is the study of human personality and how it varies among individuals and populations. Personality development also is said to have a positive impact on one’s communication skills and the way he … Each person has an idiosyncratic pattern of enduring, long-term characteristics and a manner in which he or she interacts with other individuals and the world around them. For some theories, it is the central issue. Learn More. Lecture Notes of Personality Psychology Course / Ch1-2 Larsen - Buss Course Book: Larsen, R.J., & Buss, D. M. (2009). In this series, I’ll take you through the elements of trait theory, behavioral theory, humanistic theory, biological theory, and the infamous psychoanalytic theory. Our personalities determine how we act and react, as well as how we interact with and respond to the world. Research suggests that there are two dimensions of our temperament that are important parts of our adult personality: reactivity and self-regulation (Rothbart, Ahadi, & Evans, 2000). For example, aggression and assertiveness have historically been emphasized as positive masculine personality traits in the United States. https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/11-1-what-is-personality, Define personality and describe early theories about personality development. The personality measures are standardized across measurements, and these measures of personality are very compatible with statistical analyses, providing an easily administered and measurable definition of personality. Introduction to Personality Personality has been part of debate amongst theorists for decades. Just because two factors are shown to be related does not mean that one causes the other. 198 % Increase in Productivity. Kant agreed with Galen that everyone could be sorted into one of the four temperaments and that there was no overlap between the four categories (Eysenck, 2009). The word personality comes from the Latin word persona. This type of attitude change has been accompanied by behavioral shifts that coincide with changes in trait expectations and shifts in personal identity for men and women. By 1996, however, 4 out of 5 Americans approved of women working in these fields. In this course, you will learn about modern day personality psychology with a focus on the Big 5 Traits. Introduction to Personality You have probably noticed that some people are very social and outgoing while others are very quiet and reserved. Due to a faulty blast, a railroad spike was blown through his head; miraculously, he survived the accident. How DNA interacts with the environment determines what part of the DNA code is actually activated within an individual—in other words, which genes will be expressed. That said, properly designed experimental studies can help scientists determine cause-and-effect relationships in order to develop treatment options for people with personality disorders. Personality Theories: An Introduction Dr. C. George Boeree. Research shows that the strength of personality traits varies greatly across cultures. The biological perspective on personality focuses on why or how personality traits manifest through biology and investigates the links between personality, DNA, and processes in the brain. Personality is recognised in a situation. People who live in individualist cultures tend to believe that independence, competition, and personal achievement are important. Personality is the outcome of a continuous personal quality development process. It’s important to point out that traits are determined not by a single gene, but by a combination of many genes, and also by environmental factors that control whether certain genes are expressed. Learn of personality introduction psychology desouza with free interactive flashcards. For example, if you have data that show that as ice cream sales increase, the rate of drowning deaths also increases, you should not necessarily conclude that ice cream consumption causes drowning. Western ideas about personality are not necessarily applicable to other cultures, and there is evidence that the strength of personality traits varies across cultures. In the field of behavioral genetics, the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart—a well-known study of the genetic basis for personality—conducted research with twins from 1979 to 1999. Our personality is what makes us unique individuals. Multiple twin studies have found that identical twins do have higher correlations in personality traits than fraternal twins. Do you think that friends and family would describe you in much the same way? In this case, more ice cream is sold during the hot summer months—the same time that people are more likely to go swimming. Did you have an idea for improving this content? In 1938, for example, only 1 out of 5 Americans agreed that a married woman should earn money in industry and business. Biological approaches focus on the role of genetics and the brain in shaping personality. Sigmund Freud proposed a psychodynamic theory according to which personality consists of the id (responsible for instincts and pleasure-seeking), the superego (which attempts to obey the rules of parents and society), and the ego (which mediates between them according to the demands of reality). Introduction Who is An Architect (INTJ)? November 7, 2013. (b) An 1825 lithograph depicts Gall examining the skull of a young woman. These traits may vary from culture to culture based on differing values, needs, and beliefs. These findings suggest that heredity and environment interact to determine an individual’s personality. Personality. While many gender roles remain the same, others change over time. ...Introduction to Personality Paper The etymology of the word “personality” points to the Latin persona, which denotes the mask that an actor wears during theatrical performances of Roman and Greek drama (Feist & Feist, 2006). 74 % Increase in Efficiency. 92 % Improvements in CSAT. With any of these theories, it is important to keep in mind that the culture in which we live is one of the most important environmental factors that shapes our personalities. The study of personality began with Hippocrates’ theory of humorism, which argued that personality traits are based on four separate temperaments associated with four fluids (“ humors ”) of the body. Personality refers to the long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways. Interestingly, several words in the English language that describe personality traits are rooted in humorism: “bilious” means bad-tempered, which is rooted in humorists’ thought that yellow bile was associated with grumpiness; “melancholic” is from the Greek words for “black bile,” again rooted in humorists’ thought that black bile was associated with depression. One of the first documented cases that demonstrated the link between personality and the brain was that of Phineas Gage. In this view, such personality traits are different from person to person but within an individual are stable over time and place. 48 % Cost Reduction. Twin studies have shown that heritable factors are not the only predictor of personality or even diseases such as schizophrenia; the biological perspective does not fully address non-heritable factors. Happy, sad, impatient, shy, fearful, curious, helpful. The biological approach to personality has also identified areas and pathways within the brain, as well as various hormones and neurotransmitters, that are associated with the development of personality. It drives individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways; in essence, it is what makes each individual unique. Modern personality psychology is heavily influenced by these early philosophical roots and attempts to identify which components—such as free will, heredity, or universality—are most influential in shaping human personality. Initially, phrenology was very popular; however, it was soon discredited for lack of empirical support and has long been relegated to the status of pseudoscience (Fancher, 1979). The major theories include the psychodynamic, neo-Freudian, learning (or behaviorist), humanistic, biological, trait (or dispositional), and cultural perspectives. The second individual difference variable deals with the concept of personality. It has been tailored to provide a detailed introduction for anyone who is curious about the topic. A number of theorists, such as Hans Eysenck, Gordon Allport, and Raymond Cattell, believe that personality traits can be traced back to brain structures and neural mechanisms, such as dopamine and seratonin pathways. The changes in Gage’s personality after his brain injury spurred interest in the biological factors involved in personality and implicated the frontal lobe as an important area associated with higher-order personality functions. After birth, environmental factors and maturation interact with a child’s temperament to shape their personality. These small changes in individuals’ DNA help determine each person’s uniqueness—their distinct looks, abilities, brain functioning, and other characteristics that all work together to form a cohesive personality. Choose from 500 different sets of of personality introduction psychology desouza flashcards on Quizlet. The concept of personality has been studied for at least 2,000 years, beginning with Hippocrates in 370 BCE (Fazeli, 2012). One study measuring genetic influence on twins in five different countries found that correlations for traits between identical twins were 0.50 (i.e., they had 50% of traits in common), while for fraternal twins were about 0.20 (i.e., they had 20% of traits in common). This method can also be deterministic, meaning that some factors are identified as causal—i.e., certain brain structures or patterns may be identified as causing certain psychological outcomes. Freud attracted many followers who modified his ideas to create new theories about personality. Introduction to Personality 1. What are some of your positive and negative personality qualities? In much the same manner that cultural norms can influence personality and behavior, gender norms also emphasize different traits between different genders and thereby influence the development of personality. Personality Psychology. Developed from Galen’s theory of the four temperaments, Kant proposed trait words to describe each temperament.
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