Amorim, A.F., Arfelli C.A. The pectoral fins have only slightly falcate posterior margins. Lower jaw teeth are more erect and slender than upper. pp. The name Sphyrna translates from Greek to the English language “hammer”, referring to the hammer-shaped head of this species. Early life history implications of selected carcharhinoid and lamnoid sharks of the northwest Atlantic. Pups measure approximately 50-61 cm (20-24 in.) Distribution in the Indo Pacific includes from South Africa to the Red Sea, throughout the Indian Ocean, and from Japan to New Caledonia, Hawaii, and Tahiti. This name was later changed to Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) which is currently the valid name. Bonnethead Shark (Sphyrna Tiburo) All ready for the Easter parade we got the bonnethead shark. University of California Press. This coastal shark prefers shallow waters, and are reported to even venture in freshwater. Sphyrnidae Gill, 1872 – requins-marteaux, tiburones martillo, bonnethead sharks, hammerhead sharks, scoophead sharks : Genus: Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810 – bonnethead sharks, hammerhead ... Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States and Canada, Fifth Edition : Journal/Book Name, Vol. This coastal pelagic species, is often found near continental and insular shelves as well as neighboring deep water. Clarke, S.C., Magnussen, J.E., Abercrombie, D.L., McAllister, M.K. Many, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, functions have been postulated for the cephalofoil, including sensory reception, manoeuvering, and prey manipulation… Dinâmica de populações e pesca do tubarão-martelo Sphyrna lewini capturado no mar territorial e zona econômica exclusiva do sudeste-sul do Brasil. Some individuals have dusky or black-edged pectoral fins. Species: Great Hammerhead Scientific Name: Sphyrna mokarran Date Tagged: April 7, 2016 Location Tagged: East … Linnaeus, considered the “Father of Taxonomy”, created the system of naming species that is still in use today. During summer months, smooth hammerheads form schools during migrations North to warmer waters and again during their return in winter (Ebert, 2003). Stevens, J.D. S. zygaena is dark olive-brown in color The smooth hammerhead’s back lacks a mid-dorsal ridge. The great hammerhead shark is the largest of all hammerhead species, reaching a maximum known length of 20 feet (6.1 m) 1 and weight of 991 pounds (450 kg). The species is caught in gillnets, longlines, and as bycatch in driftnet fisheries. This gives them a vertical 360 degree view, which means the hammerhead shark is able to see both above and below quite easily. This elevated rate of predation may explain the high fecundity of the species (Clarke, 1971; Branstetter, 1987; Branstetter, 1990; Holland et al., 1993). 2006b). Most other species only grow to 4 meters (13ft). The great hammerhead was first described as Zygaena mokarran in 1837 by the German naturalist Eduard Rüppell. Tanaka, S., Kitamura, T. and Nakano, H., 2002. Scientific Nomenclature – The Shark Naming System All organisms have a double-barreled (“binomial”) scientific name written in Latin. FAO, Rome, Italy. Age and growth of the Scalloped Hammerhead. It can grow up to 20 feet in length and weigh up to 1,000 pounds, although smaller sizes are more common. Sharks are a large group of animals belonging to the class of cartilaginous fishes. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The smooth hammerhead shark was originally described by Swedish natural historian Karl Linnaeus in 1758 as Squalus zygaena. All organisms have scientific names, a name that is unique for each species. The nematodes Parascarophis sphyrnae and Contracaecum sp. Mar. 2008. Juveniles spend their first two years inshore, though predation is high (Holland et al., 1993). 1. The Bonnethead Shark (also known as the Shovelhead shark) is a species of tropical shark, and is the smallest member of the hammerhead genus (Sphyrna).They are considered as a delicacy in many parts of the world and are widely popular for their ‘tasty’ flesh. The bonnethead (S. tiburo) is much easier to identify with a shovel-shaped head. Females generally mature faster and at a smaller size than males, moving offshore once they have reached maturity. Tracking MC Hammerhead. The ancestor of today's hammerhead sharks likely first appeared in Earth's oceans some 20 million years ago, and evolved over time into the variety of … The great hammerhead (S. mokarran) is distinguished by its T-shaped head that has an almost straight front edge with a notched center. and Sims, D.W., 2008. Common prey: small schooling fish such as sardines, conger eels, many reef fish species, squid, octopus, crustaceans as well as smaller elasmobranchs such as blacktip reef sharks, angelsharks and stingrays. Predators Sphyrna mokarran. Fishes in the Fresh Waters of Florida Gallery, Check the status of the smooth hammerhead at the IUCN website, English: smooth hammerhead, common hammerhead, common smooth hammerhead round-headed hammerhead, Portuguese: cambeba, cornuda, martelo, pata, Spanish: cabeza de martillo, cachona, carnuda, corna, leunada, martell, martillo, pez martillo, sarda de cachas, Bass, A.J., D’Aubrey, J.D. Scalloped hammerhead pups reside in shallow coastal nursery areas making them quite vulnerable to fishing pressures. Klimley, A.P. Pelagic elasmobranchs caught by longliners off southern Brazil during 1974–97: an overview. Scalloped hammerheads feed primarily on teleost fishes and a variety of invertebrates as well as other sharks and ray. The great hammerhead shark has a wide, thick head with the eyes at the margins. As you might guess by its name, the great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran) … The families Carcharhinidae (excluding. S. zygaena, S. lewini, and S. mokarran have represented 5.9% of the fins auctioned in Hong Kong in past years (Clarke et al., 2006). The Butterfly Rainforest exhibit will be closed on Tuesday, Dec. 1 due to weather conditions. Age, growth and reproductive biology of the Silky Shark. (Bigelow and Schroeder, 1948; Clarke, 1971; Bass et al., 1975; Compagno, 1984; Branstetter, 1987; Stevens and Lyle, 1989). The reason behind these differing population growth rates is still under debate. During the seasonal migrations the species can be seen in large schools heading north for the summer months (Clarke 1971, Bass et al. The ICUN currently lists them as “Vulnerable”. Larger sharks will prey on juveniles and sub-adults, however, adults have no major predators. Lo. Description & Behavior. ; Pérez-Jimenez, J.C.; Simpfendorfer, C.; Smith, W.D. Between the hours of 8 pm and 4 am, this is the only shark that can be found. and Kistnasamy, N. 1975. The Hammerhead Shark (Sphyrna mokarran) is a species of concern belonging in the species group "fishes" and found in the following area(s): Africa, Asia, Australia, Central and South America, Middle East, Oceanic, United States. Every species has two Latin names which allow people to be certain they are talking about the same creature no matter what language they speak. In 1950, Enrico Tortonese determined that the specimens illustrated by Valenciennes were in fact smalleye hammerheads, to which the name S. tudes then applied. 2006a). Sears Found. This is in contrast to the brown coloration that is common to many other species of hammerheads. III. Maximum size has been varied in reports over the years from 219-340 cm (7.2-11 ft.) for males and 296-346 cm (9.7-11.3 ft.) for females (Clarke, 1971; Bass et al., 1975; Klimley and Nelson, 1984; Branstetter, 1987; Chen, et al. The upper jaw teeth are narrow and triangular with the first three nearly symmetrical and erect. Great hammerhead sharks are apex … 2006. Head broadly arched and hammer-shaped and marked by a prominent indentation at midline (“scalloped”), 2. and Shivji, M.S. The liver oil is used in vitamins, hide for leather and carcasses for fishmeal. Clarke, T.A. ; Soldo, A.; Vooren, C.M. 20-50 pups are born after a 10-11 month gestation period (Ebert, 2003; Stevens, 1984). The family scientific name for hammerhead sharks, Sphyra, is the Greek word for “hammer.” Hammerhead Shark Species. Adults generally spend the majority of their time off shore, and form schools segregated by sex. comm.) Males mature at roughly 250-260 cm (8.2-8.5 ft.) and females at 265 cm (8.7 ft.) (Stevens, 1984). The anal fin has a deeply notched posterior margin. Chen, G.C.T., Leu, T.C., Joung, S.J. Nine belong to the genus Sphyrna (Greek for "hammer… 178–179. and Shivji, M.S. Scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna Iewini) have a thick, wide head shaped like a double-headed hammer with its eyes and gills on the end. and Arfelli, C.A. Some of the nine identified species of sharks in the eastern Pacific S. are. Their impressive cranium to detect even the most distinctive and unique of … sharks & Rays kg ( lbs... Soup market ( Clarke et al I have ( 1993 and earlier ) this. More at risk from fishing pressures posterior margins inside the body being by! Species include zygaena malleus Valenciennes 1822, zygaena vulgaris Cloquet 1830, and a smaller... Shark species Composition and Proportion in the Hong Kong shark fin soup (., S. and Galina, A.B % of the northwest Atlantic additionally, pelvic... 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