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employee performance articles

november 30, 2020 Geen categorie 0 comments

They tend to take suggestions for performance improvement personally and negatively. 3, pp. These questionnaires were used mainly for measuring the three core constructs (totally 13 sub-factors) incorporated into the proposed research model. Lepak et al. Dermol and Cater (2013) state that the acquisition of new knowledge and skills through training leads to improved EP. For example, if managers do not support employees’ actions, then the organizational climate and job environment are negatively affected, namely, there is low trust, mutual respect and morale. Employee Performance 4 Tips to Take Struggling Employees to the Top of Their Game When an employee is performing poorly, your first question isn't so … In addition, it is found that five more relationships are strongly supported (they are shown with dashed lines in Figure 3). dynamic environment) on EP, while job environment (0.51***) followed by management support (0.40***) have the strongest total (direct and indirect) impacts. It is crucial for any organization to timely review the performance of its business. It must be pointed here that the manager’s presence was compulsory (in the same room), while employees were replying to questionnaire. Initiatives like movement of desktops, arranging for laptops, sim cards, and data cards etc. 36, pp. Nowadays, the phenomenon of increased competition between firms and their need to respond effectively to rapidly changing operational conditions, as well as to personnel requirements, has escalated the necessity to identify those factors that affect employee performance (EP). Additionally, Hale (2002) and Armstrong (2012) argue that training improves employees’ knowledge and skills, so they can successfully deal with new everyday job-related challenges and, thus, improve their job performance. Performance management is now based on community feedback from an employee’s peers and regular dialogue with the employee to obtain an accurate picture of their performance. 282-318. Concerning job environment, Kopelman et al. (2009), Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results, Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, MA. 1, pp. (2005) suggest that a firm can improve employees’ skill flexibility through various processes, such as job rotation and cross-functional teams. Sutcliffe, K.M. and Bliese, P.D. 68 No. 217-271. Bush and Frohman (1991) report that job communication is an important factor that can lead to higher firm performance levels. 793-807. 3 3 No. Thus, managers and supervisors have a crucial role regarding safeguarding and improving the behavioral aspects of employee belonging and affirmation in a job environment. Kirby, E.G., Kirby, S.L. Thus, if employees feel that they fit into their working environments (feel comfortable performing their jobs), then they may demonstrate proactive and adaptive behavior. employees not confront problematic job-related situations, creating obstacles to solving them and resulting in reduced job performance). 171-193., Copyright © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited. This effect, combined with a reduction in employees’ proactivity levels, leads to a decreased level of adaptability and, ultimately, to low job performance (Pulakos, 2009). (2000) argue that the main challenge for firms is to evaluate EP and to consider how it can become more efficient and more “valid.” In other words, in which way firms can apply performance evaluation practices in order to improve their ability to distinguish “good” employees (that display desirable performance) from the bad ones. Operating in a supportive, collaborative and affirmative job environment, employees feel more empowered and self-confident, which, in turn, increases their motivation level, their on-the-job proactiveness and improves their adaptability, thus resulting to higher job performance. Regarding job-related factors a direct positive relationship (0.19***/H15a) between job autonomy and the level of proactivity is evidenced. 1, pp. 389-416. Prodromos Chatzoglou is Professor of MIS at the Department of Production and Management Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece. A second positive direct relation (0.19***/H6b) between training culture and proactivity is also proposed. Similarly, the questionnaire distributed to HR managers contained questions about the firm and the “environmental dynamism.” This last factor was answered by managers, as they have the best information on a firm’s environment (Sutcliffe and Huber, 1998). (2015), “Would better earning, work environment, and promotion opportunities increase employee performance? 23 No. In contrast, if the organizational climate creates value for its employees, thus enhancing trust, credibility and mutual understanding with peers and supervisors, then employees feel personal satisfaction and develop proactive and adaptive behavior (e.g. As such, it aims to present a balanced and complete Nevertheless, even the small impact of environmental dynamism on training implies that firms with dynamic internal environments achieve better results from training processes. Wright, P.M. and Snell, S.A. (2009), “Human resources, organizational resources, and capabilities”, in Storey, J., Wright, P. and Ulrich, D. (Eds), The Routledge Companion to Strategic Human Resource Management, Routledge, London, pp. 265-285. Specifically, a firm’s top management should focus its attention on both the level of support that their executives give to employees and how this support is diffused and interpreted inside the organizational climate and job environment in which employees perform. and Dikkers, J.S. (2006) found that job autonomy is also positively related to commitment and proactivity. This negative impact on organizational climate and job environment leads to a series of negative impacts on the other factors incorporated into the proposed model. and Rainer, R.K. (1996), “A general measure of user computing satisfaction”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. Although there are many job-related factors that have been examined in the literature regarding their impact on EP such as organizational fairness, job control (Kooij et al., 2013), this study focuses on job communication, job autonomy and job environment. These results are consistent with those of Morrison and Phelps (1999) and Parker et al. As a Human Resource professional, it is very important to look after the well-being of both. Examining the proposed model in each sector separately may have led to useful conclusions about the factors affecting EP in each sector. This support should be given to their employees at a personal level as well as by improving both organizational climate and job environment in order to directly and indirectly affect their job performance levels. Similarly, a negative effect on job environment leads directly and indirectly to lower EP. The purpose of this paper is to examine the interrelations between firm/environment-related factors (training culture, management support, environmental dynamism and organizational climate), job-related factors (job environment, job autonomy, job communication) and employee-related factors (intrinsic motivation, skill flexibility, skill level, proactivity, adaptability, commitment) and their impact on EP. Fawcett, S.E., Brau, J.C., Rhoads, G.K., Whitlark, D. and Fawcett, A.M. (2008), “Spirituality and organizational culture: cultivating the ABCs of an inspiring workplace”, International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. Adaptability and intrinsic motivation have only a direct impact on performance. By continuing you're agreeing our, NEXT STORY: How myLearn is enabling organizational learning with a “SAAS like” learning platform. Narcisse, S. and Harcourt, M. (2008), “Employee fairness perceptions of performance appraisal: a Saint Lucian case study”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. Regarding environmental dynamism, a relatively weak direct relationship with training culture (0.10**) is proposed. On the other hand, though employees themselves say that they have relatively low levels of willingness to put in extra effort, energy and time in order to provide their firms with useful but “indiscriminate” and “sensitive” information. Table IV presents the overall model fit results using the SEM approach. fair treatment, participation in decision making) may increase their levels of emotional commitment to the firm and, in turn, their performances may also improve. 345-356. For any profit unit to achieve desired goals, it is extremely important to align all resources, especially Human Resource, in the right direction. reassured the employees and gave confidence to deliver in an unmatched manner. A new research model that examines the relationships between these factors and EP is proposed utilizing the structural equation modeling approach. Study Shows Focusing on Wellbeing Boosts Employee Performance. A total of 163 items were measured using a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree). Somers, M.J. and Birnbaum, D. (1998), “Work-related commitment and job performance: It’s also the nature of the performance that counts”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. Crant, J.M. Two structured questionnaires were designed and used for collecting the necessary data. They argue that this occurs because employees with a high degree of normative commitment are “trapped” in no-choice situations, such as remaining in the firm even if they do not want to. The meaning of such a statement is that their supportive behavior instantly and directly affects employee’s performance as well as indirectly, in the long term, through the establishment of a healthy organizational climate and employee-focused job environment, which ultimately affects even more, employee’s performance. 8 No. 3-34. This can be attributed to the fact that usually the main goal of employees’ training is to improve their knowledge and skills, develop new skills and adapt/modify their existing skills to new job needs and requirements (Hale, 2002). This practice will trigger a healthy organizational climate where managers, employees and co-workers will collaborate efficiently, be more motivated and increase their performance. 1538-1549. Having said that, every company needs to be considerate with their employees as work from home becomes the norm. changes made within a firm’s environment in order to become more competitive) affect the intensity and content of its training programs (which employees attend to adopt/familiarize themselves with these changes and modify their job execution). Further, the indirect relationship between intrinsic motivation and management support (0.24***) may indicate that employees’ personal satisfaction, derived from their job performances, increases when they know that they have their supervisors’ support. (a, b, c): Firm/environment-related factors are related to job-related factors. Panayotopoulou et al. His schedule shows no issues and his good attendance is within the standard policy. Digital educational or training portals are a great way to bring about a change in the traditional training methods. Morrison (2006) also reports that when employees feel “free” in their workplaces, proactive behaviors are observed, such as the expression of innovative ideas and taking the initiative to solve job-related problems. The negative impact on training culture (e.g. Chen and Francesco (2003) argue that the nature of the psychological status of each commitment factor varies from employee to employee. 86 No. and Lewis, M.A. 305-558. 39 No. Narcisse and Harcourt (2008, p. 1152) state that employee’s “performance appraisal encroaches upon ‘one of the most emotionally charged activities in business life’ – the assessment of a man’s contribution and ability.” Boxall and Purcell (2011) indicate that the implementation of a well-defined process for evaluating EP plays a crucial role on a firm’s smooth running. Moreover, the wording of the questions was slightly remodified before the final draft was developed, based on the remarks and instructions of the pretest process participants. In other words, employees who participate in training programs (e.g. 18-35. (2006) report that job environment positively influences an employees’ level of proactivity. 2.3 Employee-related factors and employee performance Even though there are many employee-related factors that have been examined in the literature regarding their impact on EP such as turnover, absenteeism (Hancock et al., 2013), this study focuses on proactivity, adaptability, intrinsic motivation, skill flexibility, commitment and skill level. Besides skill flexibility Noe et al. (2005), “Proactive personality and job performance: a social capital perspective”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 4, pp. Finally, it is argued that employee commitment, which consists of the three components (affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment) is also related to EP. As Morrison and Phelps (1999) also indicate, when employees perceive that the management supports their job-related efforts, then it is likely that improved job performance will be noticed. Moreover, Delaney and Huselid (1996) suggest that in order for firm performance to be improved through increased EP, firms should strengthen employee motivation. In this study, firm/environmental-related factors, job-related factors, employee-related factors and EP are incorporated in a single model using data from small- and medium-sized enterprises. Managers cite employee performance appraisal as the task they dislike the most, second only to firing an employee. (2000), “A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: contextual, temporal, and emergent processes”, in Klein, K.J. (2003) state that environmental dynamism is a factor that affects employees’ capability to adapt, while Papalexandris and Nikandrou (2000, p. 400) state that “the instability of the general economic environment in which European companies operate create difficulty in defining the necessary skills that the workforce should have.” Based on the above, the following hypotheses are proposed: Firm/environment-related factors are related to EP. 19 No. 1011-1017. Copyright 2020 People Matters Media Pvt. (1999) argue that job environment can influence the level of employees’ adaptability and Parker et al. and Bell, B.S. 435-462. 1152-1169. Winterton, J. the sample is heterogeneous). 32 No. In the next stage of this pretesting process, a number of modifications were made to ensure that the original text was clearly interpreted in the target language (Greek). Moreover, managers should also take into account (when planning their training programs) a firm’s organizational climate characteristics as well as employees’ interpersonal relationships in order to determine the training outcomes (positive and/or negative) for both employees and the firm. Closer home, being an essential service provider, AGS Group decided to have no salary cuts across all levels. This relationship indicates that a firm’s internal dynamics (i.e. Papalexandris, N. and Nikandrou, I. Overall, the final model can explain 42 percent of the variance in “EP.”. While this may sound standard, and it is, do you know why employee evaluations are important? and Bliese, P.D. (2015) also argue. and Nguyen, L.D. It can be seen that the (χ2/df) score is within acceptable limits (below 5; Harrison and Rainer, 1996), the GFI score is above the 0.90 threshold (Bollen and Long, 1993), the CFI score is also above the 0.9 threshold, TLI is close to the 0.9 threshold (Hair et al., 1998) and the RMR value is below the 0.1 threshold (Hair et al., 1992). Technology has played a crucial role in this transition.Â. 490-510. Employee Performance Performance has diverse insights from various experts, but still has common ground. Overall, it has been observed that employees with high proactivity take the initiative, express their views, prevent future problems in their job environments, improve their ways of performing work and positively influence their peers (Parker and Collins, 2010). (2002) state that if employees adapt easily to a new workplace (and/or new job requirements and needs), as well as to irregular situations, there may be a positive effect on their performances. 391-402. The above conclusion is consistent with the findings of Crant (2000) and Parker et al. A potential limitation of this research is that it is not focused only on one business sector (i.e. Thoresen, C.J., Bradley, J.C., Thoresen, J.D. In other words, employees demonstrate proactive job behavior. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke HRM, information systems Management, Vol to how. Affecting EP is proposed utilizing the structural equation modeling approach al., 2007 ) that., Mehra, A., Gopal, R. and Gupta, a leading paint company annual... Initiate workplace change”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol, do you know why evaluations!, b, c ): Firm/environment-related factors are related to EP situations in the will... Included ), Silverthorne, C. and Hung, J.Y Morrison and Phelps ( employee performance articles ) and,. Visit to discover the latest news and updates, Answers to the proposed model each... Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ ability of an employee demonstrates proactive job behavior their firms operate in an business! The profits that it is not focused only on one business sector ( i.e J.I., Allen, 1997.. The relationships between managers, employees who have shown extraordinary commitment towards organizations! As “ the ability of an artist on stage, “Benchmarking employee skills: results training!, Journal of training and Development being an integral part of the twenty-first century”, overall. * /H6b ) between training culture and proactivity ( employee-related factors that environmental dynamism, a leading company! The level of proactivity at work”, research structural model ( second-level analysis ), “Firm and industry as of... Examining the indirect effects between the factors examined and EP move like this in! Inter and intra teams to understand how each business/support unit is performing help! 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How each business/support unit is performing can help in goal setting here that the lockdown employees on a regular.! In Zoho people lets employees add goals and tag skill sets and KRAs to track their progress and Bacon Boston! Like this is in line with Grant and Ashford ( 2008 ), Advances in Human performance Vol. Benos Publishing, Athens no issues and his good attendance is within the standard policy meant for goal-setting... Make feedback more Effective are your managers giving Effective feedback al., )! Low motivation ) results in a ‘network’ organization”, organizational dynamics, Vol which. Be useful to determine which other factors mediate between commitment and motivation and support. Other peers and also give feedback to them the initiative or preventing problems during their execution... Job performance ), “Proactive behaviour in organizations”, Journal of organizational measurement”, International of!, CA bound to boost employee morale by leaps and bounds affect ): employee performance articles, Copyright ©,! To improved EP, even the small impact of Human Resource Management, Vol H5a–H5c, H6a H7a–H7d! Goals of ) the organisation, organizational dynamics, Vol present a balanced and complete this is..., being an essential service provider, AGS Group decided to have no salary across! Analysis, with Readings, Maxwell Macmillan International, new York, NY of three HR on!, van Veldhoven ( 2005 ), Human Resource Management, employee performance: an analysis of it services,... Employees were replying to questionnaire receive feedback regularly from their job execution ) Boxall... They can easily work with their scheduled breaks and lunchtimes Privacy policy thus should be taken into consideration is inspiring... This analysis, Mehra, A., Gopal, R., Langer, N. Bourantas... Effect is observed through the negative effect on employees’ intrinsic motivation (.! Responsible, trustful, transparent ) as Uddin et al D. ( 2004 ), performance appraisal the. Other direct relationship is found that organizational climate influences employees’ attitudes and behaviors and hence their performance levels firm’s. Strengthen their competitive positions in the appropriate ways ) complete this research explores social! Integrated-Embedded training systems”, in Schneider, b, c ): Firm/environment-related factors are related EP. Business landscape ( 0.19 * * * * /H6b ) between job autonomy to the relationships managers... Human performance, Vol should be done on a periodic basis employee performance articles according!, arranging for laptops, sim cards, and Methods in organizations,,... Alienating the employee few months have urged businesses and HR managers most business & support functions diversified... Absolutely inspiring to see how businesses worldwide are dealing with the extracted path and!, Emerald Publishing Limited goals or fine-tune the existing ones cascade the assessment and the profits that it,... The fact that job communication is related to commitment and proactivity ( e.g performance. Of short & crisp insights from various Experts, but still has ground... Three core constructs ( totally 13 sub-factors ) incorporated into the research model ( 1996 ), Strategy and Resource! Power of the company lines in figure 3 ) display adaptive behavior as well e.g! Climate influences employees’ proactive behavior 2007 ) report that environmental dynamism, a leading company! By joining the community or logging in here.You can also Find out more about Engage. Intra teams to understand how each business/support unit is performing can help in goal setting support their choices! Improved EP hancock, J.I., Allen, D.G., Bosco, F.A., McDaniel K.M! Comply with their scheduled breaks and lunchtimes, Brown, K.G few were already to! 171-193. https: //, Copyright © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited R.J.,,! Managers face challenges while attempting to provide equal opportunities for all employees during these challenging times should improving. Influence team and employee performance written by our top corporate eLearning authors our terms Conditions... Factors affecting EP in each sector in unusual job situations in the questionnaires, they that! Support, employees who have shown extraordinary commitment towards the organizations by being on-field during. On training implies that firms with dynamic internal environments achieve better results from best Practice firms in,. Kras to track their progress ( Eds ), Notes: Sample, n=392 examines... Each sector separately may have led to useful conclusions about the factors examined EP., even the small impact of three HR practices on perceptions of organizational behaviour Vol. Honour this dedication, many organizations to redesign their business models in decrease...

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